Sapphire Corundum, an aluminum oxide Al2O3 Mohs: 9 Sources: Afghanistan, Australia, Myanmar/Burma, Cambodia, China, Colombia, India, Kenya, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam. ( phew!) The name "sapphire" derives from Latin sapphirus, sappirus from Greek σαπφειρος (sappheiros). Pope Innocent III decreed that rings of bishops should be made of pure gold, set with an unengraved sapphire, as possessing the virtues and qualities essential to its dignified position as a seal of secrets, for there be many things "that a priest conceals from the senses of the vulgar and less intelligent; which he keeps locked up as it were under seal Sapphire is known as the wisdom stone. It focuses and calms the mind, releases unnecessary thoughts clearing the way for you to start new educational programmes. It brings peace of mind and serenity to you while aligning the physical, mental and spiritual planes and restoring balance to the body. Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 45th anniversary.